The Ultimate Guide: How to Help a Struggling Reader at Home!

Need to figure out how to help a struggling reader? Maybe you’re feeling the pressure to get your child reading on “grade level”? Perhaps every homeschool day ends in a battle over all things school and learning.

Or maybe you’re just sick of dodging questions from Aunt Edna about what reading level your child is on?

If this resonates and you’re done with the stress, there’s good news! Today we’re taking an in-depth dive into various reading issues in kids including:

  • Auditory and language processing,
  • Working memory,
  • Phonological and phonemic awareness,
  • and more

And then I’ll lay out strategies you can use to help.

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how to help a struggling reader

This post may contain affiliate links. As an Amazon Associate, I may earn a nominal fee from qualifying purchases. Thank you for your support. See my disclosure policy for more info.

No Diagnosis Needed

Understandably, moms worry when children resist books, reading, and writing. Kids with reading difficulties are often diagnosed with one or more learning disabilities. These diagnoses are often:

Regardless of whether your child has a diagnosed learning difference, we can all agree on one thing. When kids have a hard time reading, they need help. That’s why it’s critical to know how to help a struggling reader.

Reading is a Long-Term Learning Process

With that in mind, I’ve been working on this comprehensive guide for a long time (almost two years). Reading and language development is a long-term passion of mine.

As you’ll soon see, this is because knowing how to help your struggling reader learn to read has great implications. And those implications are greater than most people realize

(Check out Reading, Writing & Relationships to hear more on that one.) For now, fellow momma, I pray this helps and encourages you. Your child is going to read.

How to Help a Struggling Reader PDF Guide

Download the PDF of this entire guide!


Characteristics of Struggling Readers: Questions To Ask

When a mom asks me how to help a struggling reader, my first step is to ask questions. These questions are meant to root out the real issues behind her child’s reading problems.

This is always the first step: Ask Questions.

  1. How old is your child?
  2. Can your child rhyme?
  3. Is your struggling reader able to hear sounds in isolation and then make them into a word?
  4. Does your child have the ability to decode (sound out) words?
  5. Can your child understand what he has read (reading comprehension)?

The answers to these questions will take you one step closer to the root issues behind your child’s struggles with reading.

Working Memory or Auditory Processing?

  • Is your child struggling to hear phonics sounds?
    • If so, it could be an auditory issue in which your child can’t “hear” the sounds.  (Phonemic Awareness) 

  • Or does he know the sounds one minute but then when asked to synthesize (combine) them, can’t do so? This may be an indication of trouble with Working Memory. 
cartoon brain working memory

Working memory is the ability to hold on to multiple pieces of information long enough to manipulate and respond appropriately.

Note that children who have trouble following multi-step directions often struggle with language and working memory. 

Even Early Readers Struggle

Here’s an unfortunate reality. When kids are “early” readers, adults (ahem… first-time moms… pointing the finger at myself here) often think,

“JACKPOT!  My kid is so smart!”

And while they may be smart, these children may still end up as struggling readers. Here’s the thing.

The ability to “decode” (create sounds from a written word) is simply one skill in the reading journey. That reading skill is just one in a long line that ultimately makes a truly literate reader.

grey puzzle pieces each showing a component of reading including fluency, comprehension, language, auditory processing, phonemic awareness
For in-depth homeschool parent training, check out
Reading, Writing & Relationships.

What are the basic reading skills?

To know how to help a struggling reader, you must know the basics of reading. Reading skills include:

  • Phonological and phonemic awareness
  • Decoding
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary Development
  • Comprehension

Understanding the basic elements of reading and language will help you best equip your struggling (or resistant) reader.

So let’s start by taking a look at reading piece by piece. Then we’ll see how it helps you to see your child’s reading and learning journey differently.

Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

One of the first components of language and reading includes phonological and phonemic awareness. Phonological awareness is the overarching ability to isolate, manipulate, and identify chunks of sounds from spoken sentences and words.

This includes:

  • Rhyming,
  • Identifying syllables,
  • Hear alliteration,
  • Counting the number of words in a sentence.

Phonemes are the units of sound that make words. Phonemic awareness is the ability to manipulate individual phonemes into and from words.

When a child starts to recognize that spoken words are composed of individual units of sound, that’s phonemic awareness. To be clear, struggling readers often demonstrate weaknesses in phonemic awareness. (Even as older students.)

tips to help struggling readers

What Is Phonemic Awareness?

Let’s look at an example of phonemic awareness. When you hear the word BUG, it’s your phonemic awareness skill that allows you to hear each sound that makes up the entire word.

  • “B” (side note: avoid adding an /-uh/ sound),
  • short U,
  • hard G,
  • “BUG”

This is just one small step in reading.

How to Help a Struggling Reader PDF Guide

Download the PDF of this entire guide!


Assess Your Child’s Phonemic Awareness Skills

It’s important to know this. Phonemic awareness is a foundational reading skill that comes BEFORE attempting formal reading instruction.

So if your child is struggling to “read,” you must assess his or her ability to audibly “hear” sounds. Put down the reading curriculum and figure out what’s going on.

Activities to Improve Phonemic Awareness

The following are activities to help improve phonemic awareness skills in kids.

1. Play with Letter Sounds

One reading intervention strategy to start with involves letter sounds and word manipulation activities.

For example, assess phonemic awareness by verbalizing to your child the component sounds of simple CVC words (consonant-vowel-consonant). Say the letter sounds of the following words one at a time:

  • CAT —> /k/ /a/ /t/
  • D-O-G —> /d/ /o/ /hard g/

Can your child take those individual sounds and blend them into the whole word? This is often a HUGE problem for early readers.

Teaching Your Child How to Rhyme

2. Good Readers Know How To Rhyme

Can your child rhyme?  Are you sure? Before saying,

“Of course my kid can rhyme,”

it’s a good idea to double-check and ask them to do so. Depending upon the age of your child, you may need to “backdoor” this to not embarrass them.

“Hey Son, Let’s play a game.  I’ll say a word and you try to match my rhyme.  Let’s see how long we can do it.”

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rhyming words phonemic awareness struggling reader

Rhyme in the Car

You want to engage in rhyming activities to strengthen your child’s ability to “hear” and identify sound patterns in words. While in the car, see how long you and your child can go back and forth using a given rhyme.

Be sure to point out that the words DO NOT have to be “real” words. Model this by adding a “Z” in front of rhymes.

  • Cat, bat, sat, rat–> Zat
  • Star, far, bar, car –> Zar

Again, many parents and educators mistakenly believe that children automatically develop the ability to rhyme. When your kid resists reading, don’t assume anything.

NEVER skip foundational reading skills in fear of your child being behind. It’s not worth it. Ever.

What about high-school kids?

The ability to hear individual sounds (phonemes) and syllables is often a difficult task for even older students. It’s not uncommon for high school students to have trouble spelling or to avoid reading.

If you notice this or any reading resistance in your older child, it’s a good idea to consider ways to help them strengthen phonemic awareness skills.

This skill must be developed for a child to read well and with understanding. Go back to the basics for a short time and tell your older student the why.

Always give older kids the “why” behind an activity to get them invested.

PRIVATE Speech & Language Support

If your child struggles to “hear” isolated sounds and isn’t “getting it” with practice, it’s time to see a Speech and Language Pathologist.

Here’s the caveat. You want a PRIVATE SLP evaluation (outside the public school system). I say this because sadly, many SLPs within the public school system are handcuffed to limited government guidelines.

What they diagnose, the school system has to pay for. (This is not a criticism of the SLPs in the school system. They are simply limited by constraints of government and red tape.)

What is Phonics?

As we continue understanding how to help a struggling reader, we need to move on to the next step. Once phonemic awareness issues have been addressed, move to direct reading instruction

Most reading instruction curricula are phonics-based.  

Phonics is a method of teaching where sounds are assigned to printed letters or combinations of letter symbols. 

A Typical Homeschool Phonics Lesson

A typical homeschool phonics lesson may look something like this: 

  • Your child sees the letter sequence D-O-G.
  • He then produces the sounds “D”- “short O”- “hard G.”

This is part of the process of DECODING (specifically, segmenting). This is one component of phonics-based reading instruction.

Letters, Letter Combos & Associated Sounds

Struggling readers often need extra support with basic spelling or phonics rules. Why is this? Well, in the English language, the letter A is represented by four possible sounds:

  • the short a sound as in CAT,
  • the long a sound as in CAKE and
  • the “ah” sound as in ALL.
  • the “uh” sound as in ABOVE

All letters in the English language have sounds associated with them. Some have one specific sound and others have more than one sound.

All About Learning Press

Ever heard that English doesn’t make any sense?

While many believe that the English language doesn’t make any sense, this is not true.

Some letter combinations, called digraphs, appear confusing to many readers (including adults.) However, once explicitly taught, digraph patterns are easier to recognize.

What are digraphs?

Digraphs are specific letter combinations that together represent a unique sound. Some examples of digraphs are:

  • CH- (3 sounds) Church, Christ, Charlotte
  • SH- (1 sound) Show
  • TH- (2 sounds) The, bath

An Orton-Gilligham approach to teaching reading and spelling is a solid way to explicitly teach these rules in a way that makes sense to struggling readers. Two excellent Orton-Gillingham based homeschool reading programs are All About Reading and The Best Homeschool Language Arts Curriculum for Dyslexia & ADHD!

Does your child struggle to remember?

What they’ve read? Multi-step directions?
What you asked them to do 5 min ago?

If so, take the Homeschool Teacher Training to help!

  • Auditory Processing vs Language Processing
  • How they impact literacy, communication & behavior
  • What you can do to change the trajectory of your child’s future by addressing underlying issues!
confused animated student

Reading Is A Complex Cognitive Process

Going back to our DOG example, the student will walk through the following steps as he decodes the word:

  • Determines that the 3 letter symbols represent 3 separate sounds
  • Creates the sounds individually
  • After saying the individual sounds out loud, he puts the sounds together in his mind.
  • Finally, he blends them to clearly say the word DOG

Note: Just because a child says the word “dog” does not mean that the child is visualizing an image of a dog.

What is Reading Fluency?

As decoding becomes second nature, the next goal is for kids to develop reading fluency. Reading fluency is the ability to read with proper speed, inflection, and accuracy.

Using our DOG example:

  • Eventually, the student sees the three letter symbols, D-O-G, and immediately knows and verbalizes the correct word.
  • He verbalizes the word aloud effortlessly and moves on to the next letter sequence with speed and confidence.

The ability to read with speed, proper inflection, confidence, and comprehension is what is termed “FLUENCY.”

Language and Auditory Processing Disorders

If you want to help a struggling reader, it’s critical to look at foundational oral and auditory language skills.

Friend, deficits in these essential skills show up in many areas of life and can have devastating consequences if not addressed.

My child has an auditory processing disorder diagnosis. APD is when auditory stimuli (sounds) enter the ear, but the brain receives a distorted message. It’s as though the sound has a traffic accident on the journey through the ear canal on its way to the brain.

struggles with reading include auditory processing disorder.  Diagram of an orange ear sending a message (an arrow) with a car flipped over then sending a distorted message to an orange brain
Auditory Processing Disorder Illustration:
From Reading Writing & Relationships Homeschool Parent Workshop

Symptoms of Language Comprehension Gaps

So what do language comprehension (or language processing) gaps look like? Why am I so passionate about this issue?

Well, take a look at this list of behaviors that you may see in a child (or adult) who’s struggling with these skills. Hopefully, that’ll help you understand why I’m so stuck on this (it’s partly my ADHD hyperfocus, I know.)

  • Resist reading at all costs,
  • Reads a book but then completely “forgets” what they read,
  • Cries at the thought of schoolwork,
  • Struggles with word problems in math,
  • Consistently responds with, “I don’t know,” or “What?” when asked questions,
  • Uses demonstrative and indefinite pronouns (non-specific words) such as, “That thing over there,” (to describe a pencil on a desk),
  • Can’t follow multi-step directions,
  • Has difficulties with sequencing (first, second, third),

Help a Struggling Reader with Comprehension

Challenges with language comprehension can be seen with all types of language including:

  • Spoken (expressive output)
  • Auditory (input or receptive)
  • Socially (gestures and facial expressions)

homeschool reading comprehension help, language processing

Not So Sudden Reading Comprehension Issues

Even when successful with earlier stages of reading, many children start to show reading comprehension deficits around 3rd grade. Teachers and parents become concerned about “sudden” reading comprehension issues. 

But the reality is that those “reading comprehension issues” were there the whole time.  It’s just that in earlier seasons, the comprehension issue was not easily identifiable.

Kids can compensate for auditory  misunderstanding by reading:

  • Facial Expressions
  • Physical Gestures

Read to Learn vs. Learn to Read

Additionally, at the 3rd-grade level, we see that multiple reading skills must integrate at once. The traditional education model expects 3rd graders to read to learn.  Compare this with learning to read.    

Many kids at this age are not even remotely fluent in all the component reading skills. They’re often sent out on their “academic” own to read, process, and apply written information that they are NOT developmentally ready for yet. 

They then fall further behind in other content areas because we’ve placed reading to learn ahead of learning to read.  

Skills Involved in Reading Comprehension

The precursor skills to reading comprehension include (but are not limited to):

  1. The ability to know how to pronounce a word correctly using relatively new decoding skills,
  2. Accurately interpret that specific word,
  3. Once properly spoken aloud, your student must move to the next word while holding onto the previous word (working memory).
  4. The child must pull from his often limited vocabulary to understand (long-term memory and vocabulary development).
  5. Engage the previously read words in his working (and short-term) memory to process them as a whole.

Is Visualizing the Missing Piece?

As mentioned earlier, just because a child can decode words does not mean that they are seeing a story in their mind (visualizing).

The ability to visualize what is read is a HUGE factor behind troubles with reading comprehension.  And many children do not naturally create a picture or “movie” in their head. 

This skill, along with many other language processing skills, is frequently lacking in kids with symptoms of dyslexia, autism, or ADHD. This is why many of these skills need to be explicitly taught.  

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boy reading visualizing the story

Suggested Visualizing Resources

I recommend Janine Toole’s Visualization Skills For Reading Comprehension.   The entire collection of learning materials is FREE on Kindle Unlimited.

Another way to support visualization is to engage your child in art. Have them draw what they imagine. Draw together if that would help your child.

Or work with your student to learn How to Make a Diorama. An old-school diorama is a great way to support visualization and reading comprehension.

Highly Verbal Kids Aren’t Immune

Here’s the kicker.

Even if your child has always been “highly verbal,” they can still have receptive language deficits which show up as reading comprehension problems.

  • Or if your child frequently forgets what they’ve read,
  • Can’t remember that you told him 100 times how to clean his bathroom,
  • or says, “I don’t know” a lot…

These are just a few indicators of an underlying auditory processing or language comprehension (language processing) issue. 

Even if your child has always been “highly verbal”, they can still have receptive language deficits which show up as reading comprehension problems.

Auditory & Language Processing Impacts More Than Reading

Reading is not a simple process by a long shot. Language processing deficits and gaps in oral and auditory language skills are HUGE issues for children (and adults).

Most parents, educators, administrators, and doctors don’t understand the magnitude of these issues. 

Name Calling Hurts Kids

Instead of seeking root auditory and language issues, many of these kids have been labeled:

  • LAZY
  • Slow
  • Much worse…

These kids often struggle terribly with low self-esteem. More specifically, kids experience a sense of shame, feelings of never being enough as well as social issues.

We all know that telling our kids to work harder or pay attention does no one any good and often leads to shame. But have hope.

Ultimately, addressing these language issues will make a difference academically, socially, relationally, and more in the long term. 

Does your child struggle to remember?

What they’ve read? Multi-step directions?
What you asked them to do 5 min ago?

If so, take the Homeschool Teacher Training to help!

  • Auditory Processing vs Language Processing
  • How they impact literacy, communication & behavior
  • What you can do to change the trajectory of your child’s future by addressing underlying issues!
confused animated student

Seek The RIGHT Diagnosis For Struggling Readers

If you are concerned about your child’s auditory or language skills, seek support from a PRIVATE speech and language pathologist or an audiologist with a specialty in Central Auditory Processing disorders.

Between a private SLP and the right audiologist, underlying language issues can be addressed.

Check out this excellent presentation by Gail Richard, Ph.D., and the former President of the American Speech & Language Hearing Association.

How to Help a Struggling Reader: Consider Homeschooling

Homeschooling affords parents the ability to seek out the best possible resources and support to meet the needs of the individual learner.

If you’re looking to take back the power in your child’s academic, emotional, and long-term success, I’ve got you. Here’s an in-depth training that you don’t want to miss. In this with you, Friend!

caucasian woman wearing black v-neck long-sleeved shirt sitting crossed legged with a black and white havanese dog in her lap

About the Author:

Lindsay is a trauma-informed educator with a Master’s Degree in Teaching. Her mission is to support moms to equip neurodivergent kids (ADHD, Autism, Dyslexia, Anxiety) to thrive as exactly who they’ve been created to be. Wait until you hear the story that led to it all…

Does your child struggle to remember?

What they’ve read? Multi-step directions?
What you asked them to do 5 min ago?

If so, take the Homeschool Teacher Training to help!

  • Auditory Processing vs Language Processing
  • How they impact literacy, communication & behavior
  • What you can do to change the trajectory of your child’s future by addressing underlying issues!
confused animated student

This post may contain affiliate links. As an Amazon Associate, I may earn a nominal fee from qualifying purchases. Thank you for your support. See my disclosure policy for more info.

All About Learning Press

Logic of English Dragon

How to Help a Struggling Reader PDF Guide

Download the PDF of this entire guide!


2 thoughts on “The Ultimate Guide: How to Help a Struggling Reader at Home!”

  1. Thanks for sharing this. I used to work in a school before and it’s really not easy. Your blog is quite informative and very different from the normal. Welldone


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